One of the world’s oldest cities, Athens has already been inhabited for 7000 years. It was built in the Attica Plains between Hymettos Mountains and Parnitha, Penteli. It is the leading city of Ancient Greece and the home of one of the world’s flourishing civilization in the ancient times.
The city’s name was taken after Athena, the goddess o f knowledge after the Athenian people chose her as the city’s patron over the god of the sea, Poseidon. According to tradition, Athens was founded when then King Theseus has united several Attica settlements. The city’s last king, Kodros was said to have sacrificed himself to save the homeland. After the kings in the ancient Athens, came the nobles who ruled the city through the consul called the Arios Pagos (Supreme Court). From this consul, 9 rulers were elected. This was also the time when the assembly of the Athenian citizens, the Eccelia of Demos, was established.
When the period of colonization ended and trades in the city expanded, many Athenians became wealthy in the fields of shipping and trade. However, the lower classes still faced poverty that it resulted to a riot after the latter demanded lands for themselves and more social justice.
After years under tyrants, democracy was born in Athens, a constitution that gives all the Athenians the right as well as the duty to participate in the state’s governance – a significant achievement of the ancient Greeks that has been practiced in many countries even until now.
Under the reign of Pericles in the 5th century BC, Athens lived its most glorious period. During this time, the city’s Golden Age of Athens Parthenon was erected. The fields of drama, arts, and philosophy have flourished during this time too. Unfortunately, the war between the Sparta and the Athenians in the Peloponnesian War ended these days of glory. But even then, the city still remained to be the heart of culture and intelligence in the Roman times.
Athens became the capital of the country in 1833 after the Greek War of Independence. And the rest, as they all say, is history.